International Journal of Nonlinear Analysis and Applications
https://ijnaa.semnan.ac.ir/
International Journal of Nonlinear Analysis and Applicationsendaily1Thu, 01 May 2025 00:00:00 +0330Thu, 01 May 2025 00:00:00 +0330On some anisotropic elliptic problem with measure data
https://ijnaa.semnan.ac.ir/article_8749.html
We prove optimal existence results for entropy solutions to some anisotropic boundary value problems like\begin{equation}\label{pro}\left\{\begin{array}{lll}-\sum_{i=1}^N D^i A_i(x, w, \nabla w)= f-\operatorname{div} F(w) \textrm{ in }\Omega, &amp; \textrm{in }&amp;\Omega, \\v=0 &amp; \textrm{on } &amp;\partial \Omega,\end{array}\right.\end{equation}where $ f \in L^{1}(\Omega) $, $ F = (F_{1}, . . . , F_{N}) $ satisfies $ F \in (C^{0}(\mathbb{R}))^{N}. $and $\Omega $ is a bounded, open subset of ${\mathbb{R}^{N}}$, $ N\geq 2$, and the function $A_{i}(x, s, \xi)$ verify the large monotonicity condition. The construction of the proof of our theorem is done by using Minty's Lemma in its modified version.A new subclass of analytic functions and some results related to Booth lemniscate
https://ijnaa.semnan.ac.ir/article_7974.html
In this paper, we introduce the subclass $\mathcal{K}\mathcal{S}(\alpha)$ of univalent functions in $\mathcal{A}$ and study some properties of this class. We apply matters of differential subordinations, to investigate some results concerning the subclasses $\mathcal{K}\mathcal{S}(\alpha)$ and $\mathcal{B}\mathcal{S}(\alpha)$ of $\mathcal{A}$, where $\alpha \in [0,1)$.Jensen’s inequality for (p-q)-convex functions and related results
https://ijnaa.semnan.ac.ir/article_8752.html
In this paper, we establish Jensen&rsquo;s inequality for (p-q)-convex functions. By using Jensen&rsquo;s inequality we obtain some Hermite-Hadamard type inequality and several sharp inequalities. Some examples are given.Some properties of bicomplex holomorphic functions
https://ijnaa.semnan.ac.ir/article_8745.html
In this paper, we first establish the bicomplex version of Rouche's theorem. Also, a new approach is given to prove the maximum modulus principle for bicomplex holomorphic functions. Our proof is based on the direct method and extends the result proved by Luna-Elizarraras et al. Finally, we generalize the Hurwitz's theorem to bicomplex space.Predicting the expected returns of cryptocurrencies using CAPM and D-CAPM approaches
https://ijnaa.semnan.ac.ir/article_8821.html
In the present study, the expected returns of cryptocurrencies were compared capital asset pricing model (CAPM) and downside capital asset pricing model (D-CAPM) approaches. For this purpose, fifty cryptocurrencies were studied as representative of risky assets in a five-year period from 2018 to 2022 with daily frequency. First, the panel was investigated using Levin-Lin-Chu, Im-Pesaran, and Shin and Dickey-Fuller's tests. Then, using paired t-statistics, the difference between the return estimates of the two models was investigated. Finally, using R2 and the generalized linear test model, the better model was selected to justify the changes in asset returns in these cryptocurrencies and portfolios. Based on the results, in almost 90% of the analyzed portfolios, the D-CAPM model was better than the CAPM model and had more justification power than the old CAPM model. In less than 1% of the models, the degree of justification and the appropriateness of the models were the same.Boundary curvature of the numerical range of self-inverse operators
https://ijnaa.semnan.ac.ir/article_8744.html
In this article, firstly we investigate some properties of the boundary curvature of the numerical range. In the next, we define $M(T)$ as the smallest constant such that $dist(\lambda,\sigma(T))\leq M(T) R_\lambda (T),$ for all $\lambda \in \partial W(T)$, where $R_\lambda (T)$, the radius curvature at the point $\lambda$, is defined. Also, we investigate for non-convexoid $T$, $M(T)=\sup\frac{dist(\lambda,\sigma(T))}{R_{\lambda}(T)}$, where the supremum on the right-hand side is taken along all points $\lambda\in \partial W(T)$ with finite non-zero curvature. Finally, the value of $M(T)$ will be calculated for the self-inverse operators.A new subclass of Ma-Minda starlike functions associated with a heart-shaped curve
https://ijnaa.semnan.ac.ir/article_8896.html
In this paper, we extend the $q$-derivative operator, which plays an essential role in quantum calculus. Indeed, by using the Hadamard product and generalized Koebe function we define the following $(\alpha,\beta,\gamma)$-derivative operator\begin{equation*}&nbsp; &nbsp; {\rm d}_{\alpha,\beta,\gamma} f(z)=\frac{1}{z}\left\{f(z)*\mathfrak{L}_{\alpha,\beta,\gamma}(z)\right\},\end{equation*}where\begin{equation*}&nbsp; &nbsp; \mathfrak{L}_{\alpha,\beta,\gamma}(z)=\frac{2(1-\gamma)z}{(1-\alpha z)(1-\beta z)},\end{equation*}and $\alpha\in[-1,1]$, $\beta\in[-1,1]$, $\alpha\beta\neq \pm1$ and $\gamma\in[0,1)$. Then by subordination relation, the operator ${\rm d}_{\alpha,\beta,\gamma} f(z)$, and a special function $\phi_\delta(z)=1+\delta z/\exp(\delta z)$ ($0&lt;\delta\leq1$), we define a new particular Ma-Minda class. We investigate some properties of this class, such as, radius problem and coefficient estimate.Biometrics based on deep learning: A survey
https://ijnaa.semnan.ac.ir/article_8758.html
Biometrics is concerned with the identification and verification of people using their physiological and behavioral characteristics which are enduring and distinctive and these characteristics can distinguish one person from another. Systems for biometric recognition integrate intricate technological, operational, and definitional choices in a variety of scenarios. These systems combined with biometric strategies and authentication techniques will help to enhance the security of applications that rely on user collaboration. They aid in locating a specific person inside a set of industrial networks, office buildings, and control systems. This paper focused on convolutional neural networks, deep learning in biometrics, Unimodal and Multimodal Biometrics, template security, and general challenges of biometrics. This article examines a comprehensive and in-depth survey that succinctly and methodically on fingerprint and vein biometrics, analyzed, and compared to determine which is more effective in verifying the identification of a specific user and to highlight a biometric authentication system and the challenges of biometrics. We discuss each method and dataset used as well as their efficacy. The key difficulties in using these biometric recognition models as well as prospective directions for future study in this area are also covered.Applying fuzzy Delphi approach for diagnosis and determination Effective factors on information technology internal audit
https://ijnaa.semnan.ac.ir/article_8909.html
This research was conducted to present a model of information technology acceptance in internal auditing using the fuzzy Delphi approach. In this study, a sample of 15 financial managers, internal auditors from companies, and audit experts was utilized, employing a non-random and judgmental sampling method. The fuzzy Delphi method was employed for screening the factors. Accordingly, the factors were initially identified as 38 factors for the experts, and through the fuzzy Delphi approach, they were reduced to 12 factors in three stages. Subsequently, a structural interpretive model was used to determine the significance and prerequisites of the validated factors. Ultimately, a four-level model of factors influencing the acceptance of information technology in internal auditing was identified. Considering that each category of factors consisted of a set of variables that were examined, the analysis of the data determined their order. The variables for the first to fourth levels are as follows: Level 1: Specialized training, management awareness, management support and encouragement, auditor's trust in technology adoption, and audit report quality. Level 2: Specialized training, management awareness, management support and encouragement, and audit report quality. Level 3: Specialized training for auditors, management support and encouragement. Level 4: Specialized training for auditors. Finally, based on the findings of the research, recommendations were provided for management and employees, as well as suggestions for other researchers.An algebraic method to obtain analytical solutions for a class of fractional partial differential equations
https://ijnaa.semnan.ac.ir/article_8769.html
In this study, we apply an algebraic approach to solve a class of fractional partial differential equations (FPDEs) by utilizing conformable fractional derivatives. This method has been successfully utilized to study and achieve analytical solutions for Drinfeld-Sokolov-Wilson equations. In this approach, we use a suitable fractional transformation and the principles of fractional calculus to simplify fractional partial differential equations into ordinary differential equations.A new approach in fault tolerance in control level of SDN
https://ijnaa.semnan.ac.ir/article_9028.html
Nowadays, the world of communication and information has undergone many changes, the rapidly growing trend of computer systems in terms of computing and storage and retrieval methods on the one hand and on the other hand a slow or almost constant trend in computer networks and non-response to The current needs of companies, organizations, telecommunication service providers as well as network designers face a series of limitations such as complexity, lack of scalability and lack of coordination between market needs and network capabilities and the introduction of cloud services and virtual servers. Network designers have taken a big step forward in the development of networks, and the solution to achieve this progress in networks is the use of software-based networks. In recent years, despite much research in the field of this type of network, there is still a need for optimizations in this area. One of the challenges that currently needs work and development is the issue of fault tolerance and failure in these networks. In this paper, various failure tolerance methods in software-defined networks are introduced.On the action of Toeplits operators into new BMOA type spaces in the unit disk
https://ijnaa.semnan.ac.ir/article_8771.html
&nbsp;We provide new sharp results on the action of Toeplitz operators from Triebel and Besov spaces to new BMOA-type function spaces on the unit disk. &nbsp;In this paper, we consider $s\geq1$ case in previous papers $s&lt;1$ was covered for $BMOA_{s,q}$ and $BMOA_s^p$ spaces. We modify a little our previously known proofs.Necessary conditions for vector-valued optimization problems on Banach spaces
https://ijnaa.semnan.ac.ir/article_8966.html
In this paper, the class of nonconvex vector-valued optimization problems with inequality constraints is considered. We introduce two constraint qualifications and derive the weak and strong Karush-Kuhn-Tucker type of necessary conditions for a (weakly) efficient solution to the considered problem. All results are given in terms of Dini directional derivative and Clarke subdifferential.Providing a guerilla marketing model based on the meta-synthesis and fuzzy Delphi methods
https://ijnaa.semnan.ac.ir/article_9039.html
Given that marketing and its new methods play essential roles in survival in the current competitive market, the development of new marketing methods is considered the key to the survival of small businesses, and it has thus created guerilla marketing. Therefore, the present research aimed to synthesize extensive literature on guerrilla marketing. The research had an exploratory sequential mixed-methods type in terms of the nature of data analysis methods: In the first step, it was based on the meta-synthesis qualitative approach; in the second step, it determined the indices of the guerilla marketing model and screened them using the binomial t-test, and the fuzzy Delphi method (quantitative method); and in the third step, it introduced the indices agreed upon by the experts and offered a model. The statistical population consisted of studies from 2000 and 2021. In this regard, 250 studies on the target subject were evaluated, and finally, 26 studies were selected purposefully. Using the content analysis and synthesis of the relevant literature, 7 concepts and 5 key categories were selected from a total of 68 codes during the search process and systematic synthesis and were then analyzed and their validity was confirmed using Kaufman's kappa test. After the survey of experts, 61 codes were approved employing binomial test and fuzzy Delphi method. The results indicated that the most important key categories identified included technological tools, human tools, cultural tools, relational tools, and advertising weapons. The present research provided a deep understanding of the existing literature on guerrilla marketing.Novel concepts of connectivity in vague incidence graphs with application
https://ijnaa.semnan.ac.ir/article_8773.html
Vague sets (VSs) being the most advanced form of fuzzy sets has more capacity to analyze the network state more intelligently. It is proven that VS is more useful to solve many real life problems having uncertainties. Fuzzy graphs (FGs) are efficient mathematical models for analyzing many problems of daily life. One of the most widely used types of FG is vague incidence graph (VIG). VIGs play an important role in various fields such as computer science, pcychology, medicine, and political sciences and are used to find effective people in an organization or social institution. They can be used to describe the problems which cannot be handled through FGs and VGs. So, in this paper, specific ideas analogous to vague cut vertices and vague bridges in VGs, &nbsp;vague incidence cut-vertices, and vague incidence bridges are explored. The notion of vague incidence &nbsp;gain and vague incidence less for vague incidence paths and pairs of vertices is also initiated.Investigating the path analysis of smart marketing strategy on improving the marketing performance of Saderat Khorasan Razavi Bank
https://ijnaa.semnan.ac.ir/article_9026.html
One of the reasons for the poor performance of some bank branches is their poor marketing. On the one hand, there is no specific tool to measure the development of marketing activities in the branches, especially the issues that are under the control of the branches themselves; Therefore, a concept called "smart marketing" has been defined to check to what extent the branches are in front of the smart environment and with what quality they carry out marketing measures according to their authority. Therefore, the purpose of the current research was to analyze the path of intelligent marketing strategy to improve the marketing performance of Saderat Khorasan Razavi Bank. According to the research process, the research method is a descriptive survey. The statistical population is all managers, assistants and marketing experts of Bank Saderat Khorasan Razavi in the number of 567 people, of which 229 people were selected by simple random method. The data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire, and the data were analyzed using the structural equation modelling method and Lisrel software, and the results showed that there was a positive and significant effect on all research variables.Fixed point theorems for weakly contractive mapping on generalized asymmetric metric spaces
https://ijnaa.semnan.ac.ir/article_8775.html
In this present paper, inspired by the concept of weakly contractive mapping in metric spaces, we introduce the concept of weakly contractive mapping in generalized asymmetric metric spaces and we establish various fixed point theorems for such mappings in complete generalized metric spaces.Financial bankruptcy prediction using artificial neural network and Firefly algorithms in companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange
https://ijnaa.semnan.ac.ir/article_9005.html
By anticipating financial turmoil, it is possible to take the necessary precautions before financial distress occurs by managers and investors. This study compares two algorithms for predicting bankruptcy using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Neural network optimized metaheuristic Firefly Algorithm (FA). To run the test, initial values are first set for the network weights and biases. Then, during optimization, the FA algorithm generates a population of different weights and biases. The conversion function used in the output layer is linear, and a non-linear sigmoid function is selected for the middle layer. To conduct this research, the data of 79 companies listed on TSE from 2012 to 2015 were collected and analyzed statistically by backpropagation neural network and FA algorithms. The results show that FA, compared to ANN predicted the companies&rsquo; bankruptcy much better. Also, the FA Algorithm maintains a good correlation between bankrupt and non-bankrupt companies, just like real data.The explanation of the role of management audit information in the strategy development process based on the actors-network approach
https://ijnaa.semnan.ac.ir/article_9030.html
Increasing attention to the role of information and communication and social factors as well as sociology in all sciences is considered one of the effective infrastructures in development growth and prosperity in every science. Accounting and auditing as knowledge, experience and skills that are always on the path of growth, from the two perspectives of knowledge and professionalism, are always intertwined in various dimensions with the surrounding environment and society of the organizations and companies and on the path of evolution, progress, construction and interaction are in communication and interaction with many actors and networks. The theory of actors pays attention to the relationship between variables. The existing communication and recognition of the role of each actor in an organizational environment, regarding the functions of the information system, can contribute to the extensive evolution of accounting from two perspectives of knowledge and profession. The Actor-network theory is one of the theories of sociology. Auditing every organization always tries to operate efficiently, effectively, and with the lowest cost, using all facilities for economic effectiveness and helping the management provide timely reporting for strategic decisions. The independent evaluation of managers' performance is done through these internal audit groups. The present research is correlational and scientific, and it was carried out using questionnaires, distributed among 250 accountants and auditors of Iranian public and private auditing institutions and the stock exchange market, as well as using the SPSS Software. Based on this, according to the practical aspects of the research and as a distinguishing feature from other conducted research, considering its innovative aspect, the effect of the actors-network and its constituent parts is explained, and its impact is investigated in improving the situation and strategic decisions.Presenting internal auditors' coping strategy model with an interpretative structural approach
https://ijnaa.semnan.ac.ir/article_9041.html
This research was carried out to present the internal auditors' coping strategy model with an interpretative structural approach. From the point of view of the result of its implementation, the upcoming research is applied research, to implement exploratory research and descriptive research using a survey method. The information required for the research to provide the model was collected using semi-structured interviews from 11 experts in the subject field of the research, i.e. people in the accounting and auditing profession who had more than 15 years of work experience in the field of internal audit. In this research, a coping strategy model for internal auditors was designed using Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM). The results of the interpretive structural analysis (ISM) by the exploratory model showed that brain software coping strategies include financial intelligence, accounting and auditing, clear recognition of roles and responsibilities and the development of internal auditors' skills with training, hardware coping strategies including continuous communication between managers and employees, reporting Physical errors and defects and continuous inspections, software coping strategies including systematic review and analysis of reports, performance evaluation processes and upgrading internal audit technologies lead to the reduction of conflicts of internal auditors including personal conflict, conflict of duties, conflict of job position and conflict of interests.A new class of generalized convex functions and mathematical programming
https://ijnaa.semnan.ac.ir/article_8781.html
In this paper, a new class of nonconvex optimization problem is considered, namely &nbsp;$(h,\varphi)$-$(b,F,\rho)$-convexity is defined for $(h,\varphi)$-differentiable mathematical programming problem. The sufficiency of the so-called Karush-Kuhn-Tucker optimality conditions are established for the considered $(h,\varphi)$-differentiable mathematical programming problem under (generalized) $(h,\varphi)$-$(b,F,\rho)$-convexity hypotheses. Further, the so-called &nbsp;Mond-Weir $(h,\varphi)$-dual problem is defined for the considered $(h,\varphi)$-differentiable mathematical programming problem and several duality theorems in the sense of Mond-Weir are derived under appropriate (generalized) $(h,\varphi)$-$(b,F,\rho)$-convex assumptions.Regularity properties for convex-like $C(T)$-valued functions on Hilbert spaces
https://ijnaa.semnan.ac.ir/article_9042.html
In this paper, we introduce several regularity properties for the non-differentiable convex-like $C(T)$-valued functions which are defined on a Hilbert space. &nbsp;The relationships with various regularity properties are investigated. All results are given in terms of the convex subdifferential. Non-trivial numerical examples are incorporated to demonstrate the validity of the results established in this paper. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first to investigate the regularity properties for the $C(T)$-valued functions, even in the differentiable case of finite-dimensional spaces.A new generalization of the $l_p$ spaces
https://ijnaa.semnan.ac.ir/article_8897.html
In this work, using semidefinite matrices gives a new generalization of the $l_p$ spaces and some inequalities containing lower bounds of some operators are proved. Also, by defining an inner product on the classes of an equivalence relation on operators, some inequalities similar to the well-known inequalities including the Copson, Cesaro, Hilbert and Hardy inequalities are obtained.Stock price prediction using data mining algorithms in the Iranian stock market
https://ijnaa.semnan.ac.ir/article_9048.html
Uncertainty in the capital market means the difference between the expected values and the values that occur in reality. The design of different analysis and forecasting methods in the capital market is also due to the high value and the need to know prices in the future with more certainty or less uncertainty. To earn profit in the capital market, investors have always sought to find the right share for investment and the right price for buying and selling, and therefore all the forecasting models proposed have always sought to answer three basic questions; What share, in what time frame and at what price should be bought or sold. In this article, we will use the combined method based on LSTM and a neural fuzzy system to predict stock prices in the Iranian market. The results show that the proposed method has an accuracy of over 90% in stock price prediction.Modification and error analysis of an adaptive collocation method for solving delay differential equations
https://ijnaa.semnan.ac.ir/article_9052.html
In this paper, we introduce an effective multistep collocation method for solving delay differential equations (DDEs) with constant delays. We determine the convergence properties of the proposed method for delay differential equations with solutions in appropriate Sobolev spaces and show that the proposed scheme enjoys spectral accuracy. Numerical results show that the proposed method can be implemented efficiently and accurately for various DDE model problems.Study of factors affecting financial reporting transparency using meta-analysis method (Investigating different criteria for measuring transparency and adoption of international financial reporting standards)
https://ijnaa.semnan.ac.ir/article_9061.html
The purpose of this research is to study the factors affecting financial reporting transparency using the meta-analysis method. In the present research, 3rd version of the meta-analysis software was used to test the hypotheses and objectives of the research. The results showed that the square of accord (I2) statistics was above 90%. For both research hypotheses, a z-value of 1.96 was obtained; on the other hand, the p-value was less than 0.05 for each research, which indicates that the research hypotheses can be confirmed with a 95% confidence level or 5% error. The Z-values are 3.15, and 5.30, respectively, and the p-values are 0.001, and 0.000 for the first and second hypotheses respectively.The operational matrices of two dimensional Bernstein polynomials for solving the hyperbolic partial differential equation with boundary conditions
https://ijnaa.semnan.ac.ir/article_9062.html
The wave equations are one of the most important equations in engineering and physics, which are usually formulated as hyperbolic partial differential equations with special boundary conditions. In this paper, a numerical method for solving these equations based on Bernstein polynomials is introduced. The properties of Bernstein polynomial operational matrices turn this differential equation and its boundary conditions into a system of algebraic equations. Some numerical examples illustrate the accuracy, validity, and applicability of the new technique.New progress on refinements Young type inequalities with Kantorovich constant
https://ijnaa.semnan.ac.ir/article_9067.html
In this article&lrm;, &lrm;we introduce refinements of Young-type inequalities for scalars&lrm;. &lrm;We then extend these inequalities to encompass versions based on Hilbert-Schmidt and trace norms&lrm;. &lrm;The results presented in this paper represent refinements of the findings originally established by Nasiri and Shakoori [6].Mean-field Reflected BSDEs with Infinite Horizon and Applications
https://ijnaa.semnan.ac.ir/article_9073.html
We establish the existence and uniqueness of solutions to a mean-field reflected backward stochastic differential equation with an infinite horizon under a Lipschitz condition on the coefficient. As an application, we prove the existence of an optimal strategy for the mean-field mixed stochastic control problem.Examining the role of coefficients of oil supply shocks, demand shocks, and delays on exchange rate fluctuations
https://ijnaa.semnan.ac.ir/article_9075.html
The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of oil price shocks on the exchange rate fluctuations of selected Persian Gulf countries, including Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iraq, and Iran, from 2000 to 2023 using the structural autoregression (SVAR) model. The findings of this research showed that the coefficients of oil supply shocks are significant only in Saudi Arabia and are no longer statistically significant in the other three countries. Coefficients of delays are statistically significant only for the country of Saudi Arabia in the first Intermission. Furthermore, regarding the coefficients of total demand shocks on exchange rate fluctuations of these countries, it does not have a significant impact on any of the countries. The results regarding the interruptions of the demand shock also indicate that statistically only the first interruption is significant for Kuwait. In addition, the impact of specific oil demand shocks on exchange rate fluctuations is significant for Kuwait. Therefore, it can be said that no strong, stable, or long-term effects of the structural shocks of oil supply and demand were found in the currencies of these countries.Three weak solutions for a (p, q)-Schrödinger-Kirchhoff type equation
https://ijnaa.semnan.ac.ir/article_9076.html
In this manuscript, we investigate a (p, q)-Schr&ouml;dinger-Kirchhoff equation involving a continuous positive potential that meets the del Pino-Felmer type conditions. Using Recceri's classical variational approach, we prove the existence of three weak solutions.
&nbsp;Stock portfolio with maximum predictability of Sharpe ratio based on hidden Markov model
https://ijnaa.semnan.ac.ir/article_9080.html
The Sharpe ratio is one of the performance evaluation criteria of the stock portfolio, which shows the return per unit of risk. This ratio is particularly important for risk-averse investors. In the current research, the hidden Markov model approach introduces a new stock portfolio model called the maximum predictability portfolio of the Sharpe ratio. The hidden Markov model used for each hidden state has a mixture of normals distribution output, which is used to calculate the return and standard deviation to calculate the Sharpe ratio in the investment horizon. The research portfolio calculates the weights of the portfolio in such a way that the Sharpe ratio is maximized in the horizon of the portfolio. The optimal research portfolio was optimized using the historical data of 10 indices from the Tehran Stock Exchange between 2018 and 2018 in a four-member mode space. The evaluation of the performance of the optimal portfolio in the Sharpe ratio criterion shows that the research model has a better performance than the mean-variance model and the equal-weight model.Generalizations of the Hilbert-Weierstrass theorem and Tonelli-Morrey theorem: The regularity of solutions of differential equations and optimal control problems
https://ijnaa.semnan.ac.ir/article_9084.html
One of the basic problems in the &ldquo;Calculus of Variations&rdquo; is the minimization of the following functional:$$F(x)=\int_a^b f(t,x(t),x'(t)) dt,$$over a class of functions $x$ defined on the interval $[a,b]$. According to a regularity theorem, solutions to this fundamental problem are found in a smaller class of more regular functions. However, they were originally considered to belong to a larger class. In this context, two theorems attributed to &ldquo;Hilbert-Weierstrass&rdquo; and &ldquo;Tonelli-Morrey&rdquo; are two classical studies of the regularity of discussion for the solutions to this problem. As higher-order differential equations and higher-order optimal control problems become more prevalent in the literature, regularity issues for these problems should receive more attention. Therefore, a generalization of the above regularity theorems is presented here, namely the regularity of solutions to the following functional$$F(x)=\int_a^b f(t,x(t),x'(t),\dots,x^{(n-1)}(t)) dt$$where $n \geq 2$. It is expected that this extension will be helpful in discussing the regularity of higher-order differential equations and optimal control problems.Analyzing the impact of drug price liberalization on poverty and inequality and proposing a new framework for supporting vulnerable groups in Iran's economy on health reform
https://ijnaa.semnan.ac.ir/article_9087.html
Improving income distribution is considered as one of the components of economic development in the Iranian economy, especially in the years after the Islamic Revolution. Due to the dependence of the government budget on oil revenues (40%) and the high share of subsidies in the annual budget (10%) of the Iranian economy, fluctuations in the global oil market, sanctions imposed in this area and the subsequent uncertainty in the realization of Oil revenues can affect government budgets and revenue distribution. In this study, to study the effect of drug price liberalization on inequality and income distribution using the Gini coefficient index, the integrated data model in the period 2010: 1 to 2019: 4 has been used. The results show that drug price liberalization has a negative and significant effect on the level of income distribution in the short run.Weighted composition operators on extended analytic Lipschitz algebras
https://ijnaa.semnan.ac.ir/article_9090.html
&nbsp;In this paper, we study weighted composition operators on extended analytic Lipschitz algebras ${\rm Lip}_{A}(X,K,\alpha)$ where $X$ is a compact plane set, $K$ is a closed subset of $X$ with nonempty interior and $0 &lt; \alpha \leq 1$. We first give necessary conditions and sufficient conditions on a function $u \in \mathbb{C} ^{X}$ and self-map $\varphi$ of $X$ for which $T=uc_{\varphi}$ to be a weighted composition operator on ${\rm Lip}_{A}(X,K,\alpha)$. We next give the necessary conditions for these operators to be compact and provide some sufficient conditions for the compactness of such operators.Designing a human resources agility model in the tax affairs organization based on the government's agility policies
https://ijnaa.semnan.ac.ir/article_9097.html
This study aimed to design a human resource agility model in the Tax Affairs Organization based on the government's agility policies on 376 senior and middle managers of the country's tax affairs organization. The current applied research is quantitative in terms of data collection method. The primary data collection tool is the questionnaire made by the researcher in the department. The validity of the questionnaire was confirmed using the content validity method. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated to evaluate the reliability of the questionnaire. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was more than 0.7, indicating good reliability. The partial least squares technique and SmartPLS software were used to test the hypotheses. The government's agility policies positively and significantly impacted human resource management, organizational values, and job design. Organizational improvement strategy positively and significantly affected human resources management, organizational values, and job design. Human resource management had a positive and significant impact on the development of human resources. Organizational values positively and significantly affected human resources development and resilience capabilities.Fuzzy q-Taylor Theorem
https://ijnaa.semnan.ac.ir/article_9101.html
The main purpose of this work is to introduce and investigate fuzzy quantum calculus. Our idea begins with a general definition of fuzzy $q$-derivative on arbitrary time scales using the generalized Hukuhara difference. It compiled some basic facts in the fields of the fuzzy $q$-derivative and the fuzzy $q$-integral and proved them in detail. Proceed with this work, specifying the particular concept of fuzzy $q$-Taylor's expansion, especially for continuous and fuzzy valued functions which are non-differentiable in the classical (usual) concept, as the best tool for approximating functions and solving the fuzzy initial value $q$-problems. Eventually, some numerical examples of fuzzy $q$-Taylor's expansion of special functions and functions with switching points, are solved for illustration.Reliability based planning and operation planning of thermal-wind units
https://ijnaa.semnan.ac.ir/article_9103.html
Today, the issue of planning and operation planning of thermal units (TUs) based on generation system reliability has become very important due to the restructuring process in power systems, load increment and distributed generation penetration on the demand side. This paper proposes a two-step approach to solve the aforementioned issue in the presence of wind farm renewable energy resources in the electricity market environment. In the first step, the optimal installation capacity of TUs is determined by the goal of providing annual peak load and being at the desired level of generation system risk using the loss of load probability analysis. Their economic dispatch and spinning reserve are determined in the second step. Expected energy not served is used for generation system reliability evaluation in the operation planning phase. Single contingencies of TUs are defined as system uncertainty. It is assumed that wind farm has constant capacity in the planning phase, and it generates active power (negative injection) as a function of wind speed at the installation region in the operation planning phase. Auto Recursive and Moving Average time series model is applied for wind speed estimation at different time intervals in the operation planning phase. The genetic algorithm has been used to solve this optimization problem. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed model, numerical studies and simulations are performed on the standard test generation system with 32 TUs and 1 wind farm. Finally, conceptual results have been expressed.The effects of war and military budget on the fluctuations of macroeconomic variables
https://ijnaa.semnan.ac.ir/article_9116.html
Economic conflicts of interest, international agreements, demarcation, ideological beliefs, etc. have led to differences between countries and even regions, to the extent that numerous wars have occurred in the world from the past until now. Evidence in Iran and other parts of the world speaks of the destructive effects of wars. The present study examines the effects of war on macroeconomic variables in Iran, emphasizing both military and non-military expenditures of the government, within the framework of a DSGE model during the time period from 1991 to 2021. According to the results obtained from the variance decomposition of variables in response to a war shock, it was revealed that this shock explains 69.85% of output fluctuations, 67.83% of consumption fluctuations, 65.81% of investment fluctuations, 70.54% of government expenditure fluctuations, 71.28% of employment fluctuations, and approximately 80% of wage fluctuations. The results of instantaneous response functions indicate the negative response of economic variables including production, consumption, investment, employment and wages and the positive response of government expenditures in response to a war shock.Coefficient estimates for a subclass of analytic and bi-univalent functions by an integral operator
https://ijnaa.semnan.ac.ir/article_9117.html
In this paper, we introduce and investigate a subclass &nbsp;$\mathcal{G}_{\Sigma}^{h,p}(\lambda,m,n, \alpha,\gamma)$ of bi-univalent functions in the open unit disk $\mathbb{U}$. Upper bounds for this class's second and third coefficients of functions are found. The results, which we have presented in this paper, would generalize and improve some recent works of several earlier authors.The identification of factors influencing the adoption of virtual banking and its consequences
https://ijnaa.semnan.ac.ir/article_9122.html
In today's world, virtual services play a major role in commerce, including banking activities. Virtual banking is currently the most extensive and newest form of banking services, offering a wide range of services to customers. The present study was conducted to identify factors influencing the adoption of virtual banking and its consequences. This research is applied in terms of its purpose and is considered a descriptive survey study based on its type. It was conducted using a mixed-method approach (qualitative-quantitative). The statistical population of the qualitative section includes 14 academic and banking experts, consisting of experienced university professors and banking specialists from Tehran Province, selected through purposive sampling. In the quantitative section, 350 employees and 385 customers of Saderat Bank branches in Tehran Province were selected using cluster and convenience sampling, respectively. In this research, the tool for collecting qualitative data was semi-structured interviews, and the tool for collecting quantitative data was a researcher-designed questionnaire. Experts confirmed the questionnaire's face, construct, and content validity, and Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to determine its reliability. This coefficient was calculated to be 0.976 for the research questionnaire, which is statistically acceptable. To validate the model in the quantitative section, structural equation modelling with a partial least squares (PLS) approach was used, through Smart PLS3 software. In the qualitative section, the data from the interviews, through open, axial, and selective coding, led to the development of a grounded theory in virtual banking adoption. The model designed in this study includes 36 subcategories within 6 main categories, demonstrating causal factors, contextual factors, intervening factors, core phenomena, strategies, and outcomes. In the quantitative section, the significance and standard coefficient of the model components were also confirmed for model validation.A new generalized Laplace transform
https://ijnaa.semnan.ac.ir/article_9123.html
A new generalized Laplace transform is introduced, which is a common generalization of the Laplace transform, Sumudu transform, ELzaki transform, and a transformation of X. J. Yang. The basic properties of this generalized Laplace transform are derived, so that these properties coincide with the properties of the known transformations mentioned above.A density-based clustering method with calculating the Eps parameter
https://ijnaa.semnan.ac.ir/article_9127.html
With regard to the non-linear nature of real-life data, their clusters' shapes are non-convex and unfortunately, some clustering methods cannot identify non-convex clusters and this is a challenge. Density-based clustering methods could be a solution to this problem. Among all methods of this type, the DBSCAN algorithm can cluster data with different shapes, sizes, and densities and also identify noise points. However, owing to the use of static input parameters-the neighbourhood radius ($Eps$) and the minimum value for cluster formation ($MinPts$)- this algorithm has some problems such as the difficulty in accurately determining these parameters in high-dimensional data sets and not recognizing clusters with different densities. Accordingly, this paper presents a density clustering algorithm, which requires minimal input parameters and one of its main parameters is $Eps$, which is automatically calculated based on the $k$-nearest neighbours of points and its value is different for each cluster. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, some experiments were conducted. The obtained results showed the effectiveness and efficiency of the presented algorithm regarding the correct identification of clusters with the desired shape, size, and density. In addition, the proposed algorithm was found effective in estimating the number of clusters in most of the data sets considered in this study.Designing a model for financial forecasting using the integration of neural networks, Box Jenkins and Holt Winters methodology
https://ijnaa.semnan.ac.ir/article_9136.html
The present study designs a model for financial forecasting by integrating neural networks. This retrospective comparative study uses the average price data of OPEC oil from 2003 to 2022 to forecast the period from June 2022 to May 2024. To this end, two time-series models (Box-Jenkins and Holt-Winters) were examined, which in the second stage were incorporated into a hybrid model based on artificial neural networks. The neural network model was developed using Matlab, and the Box-Jenkins time-series model was constructed using SPSS and Eviews software. Based on the results of the error analysis of the Box-Jenkins methodology, among the time series processes ARIMA(5,1,5), ARIMA(4,1,5), ARIMA(3,1,5), and ARIMA(5,1,3), the models demonstrated the best accuracy with MSE values of 61.86, 63.21, 63.29, and 63.62, respectively. The accuracy of the Holt-Winters method was not suitable for time-series forecasting due to the nature of the data. Therefore, the best artificial neural network was designed for combining forecasting methods. This neural network included an input layer with 5 neurons, a hidden layer with 5 neurons, and a single-neuron output layer. The network was trained using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm and employed a linear sigmoid activation function. The results indicated that the designed hybrid neural network significantly improved the accuracy of the forecasting methods and enhanced the MSE, MAPE, AIC, and BIC indices.