The Spatial Modeling and Analysis of Ancient Sites of Khonj County Using Hybrid AND-GIS Analysis

Document Type: Research Paper


1 Department of Archeology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Archeology, Iranology Foundation, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Archeology, Abhar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan, Iran



In the new thinking of the scientific and academic community of Iran, applying science and guiding it to meet the fundamental needs of human society is one of the most important tasks. The identification of these phenomena with the help of GIS theoretical spatial sciences leads to the identification of how each of the human phenomena has been established in the past. Spatial modeling for spatial analysis and scattering of archeological sites in Khonj County is the main purpose of the present research. In terms of purpose and terms of methodology, this research is applied and descriptive-analytical, based on the library, model, and spatial studies. The selected indicators were collected in two stages by studying the records (research projects, statistics, books), using the viewpoints of the experts (taking advantage of Delphi's method and extracting the opinions of academic theorists and managers of related organizations), and they were integrated using the Delphi method. In this section, 14 indicators were identified, and then the ANP-Dematle hybrid analytical model was used to identify the effect of indicators and criteria on each other and ranking. Finally, they were overlapped by GIS software using fuzzy analysis. Research results show: the latitude variable (a3) has the highest impressment (0.120) and then variables of the gradient (c3) and height (b1) with impressment of 0.118 and 0.117 are in the next ranks, respectively. The results of the analysis of fourteener indicators in the ArcGis software environment, which are effective in determining the spatial scattering of 93 archaeological sites show that distance and proximity to water, good soil, and high altitude are some of the reasons for the formation of settlements in this county. The most important reasons that influence the settlement patterns of this region are dependence on three important characteristics: water, good soil for agriculture as well as suitable height.