Routing enhancement in wireless sensor networks based on capsule networks: A survey

Document Type : Research Paper


Computer Engineering Department, University of Technology, Iraq


This paper is a survey of an effective routing enhancement for sensor nodes in WSNs. The adoption of WSNs has risen as a result of recent developments in wireless technology (WSNs). Because of its promising properties, such as low cost, low power, simple implementation, and ease of maintenance, a Wireless sensor network has become widely employed for monitoring and controlling applications in our daily lives. In general, scalable and dependable WSN models with shorter latency times, precise data transfer between nodes, low energy consumption, and longer life are required. The performance of a wireless sensor network greatly relies on the routing approach used, so that communications between multiple wireless sensor nodes are managed by routing protocols. To enhance routing in WSNs the following parameters should be considered: Shortest path, energy consumption, network lifetime, mean delay, Mean jitter, Packet delivery ratio, lost packets, throughput and the energy consumption of the entire WSN. The most important constraints of wireless sensor networks are energy consumption and network lifetime. We will use a capsule network to make the enhancement routing in WSNs by enhancing and optimizing routing protocols for WSNs.


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Volume 13, Issue 2
July 2022
Pages 1229-1238
  • Receive Date: 12 January 2022
  • Revise Date: 02 March 2022
  • Accept Date: 15 March 2022