On the food chain model with prey refuge and fear effect

Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Mathematics, Vivekananda Mahavidyalaya, Purba Bardhaman-713103, West Bengal, India


Of concern the present study deals with an updated food chain model in a natural environment with the inclusion of fear effect in the prey population through Holling type II functional response in presence of prey refuge effect. The present model is affluent with intra-specific competition among the hunter species having specific mortality. The model system emphasizes its characteristics in the proximity of the probable equilibrium position in the realm of biological dynamics. The response of the system is explored further for its stability analysis based on prerequisites and Hopf-bifurcation phenomena as well with respect to some significant model parameters. Extensive numerical simulation reveals the validity of the proposed model so as to indicate the ecological implications.


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Volume 13, Issue 2
July 2022
Pages 2071-2086
  • Receive Date: 12 August 2021
  • Revise Date: 13 April 2022
  • Accept Date: 05 June 2022