Fuzzy adaptive routing protocol for packet dissemination in FANET

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Software and Informatics Engineering, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Iraq.

2 Department of Computer Engineering, Lebanese French University, Erbil, Iraq


In the development of networks, a new paradigm called flying adhoc networks (FANET) has evolved recently. FANET’s are comprised of unmanned aerial vehicles like drones, autonomous flights, etc. Drones are mainly used for surveillance, logistics, etc. On the verge of this FANET, many issues are arising regarding their proper usability, one among them being the routing of packets from the ground station to the destined drone. In this research work, we have developed a protocol for packet delivery called fuzzy adaptive routing protocol. This protocol uses factors like signal quality, signal to inference and noise ratio, hop count, and timestamp of the packet to decide on the broadcasting of route requests and reply messages. This protocol mainly contains two phases namely: controlled route request/reply broadcasting and optimal route selection for packet delivery. The performance of the proposed protocol is compared with recent techniques and the comparison depicts that the proposed protocol outperforms them and provides consistent service quality.


[1] M. Arafat and S. Moh, Routing protocols for unmanned aerial vehicle networks: a survey, IEEE Access 7 (2019),
[2] A. Chriki, H. Touati, H. Snoussi and F. Kamoun, FANET: Communication, mobility models and security issues,
Comput. Networks 163 (2019).[3] H. Fatemidokht, M. Rafsanjani, B. Gupta and C. Hsu, Efficient and secure routing protocol based on artificial
intelligence algorithms with UAV-assisted for vehicular ad hoc networks in intelligent transportation systems,
IEEE Trans. Intell. Transport. Syst. 22 (2021), no. 7, 4757–4769.
[4] A. Garcia-Santiago, J. Castaneda-Camacho, J. Guerrero-Castellanos and G. Mino-Aguilar, Evaluation of AODV
and DSDV routing protocols for a FANET: Further results towards robotic vehicle networks, IEEE 9th Latin
Amer. Symp. Circ. Syst. (LASCAS), 2018.
[5] A. Guillen-Perez, A. Montoya, J. Sanchez-Aarnoutse and M. Cano, A comparative performance evaluation of
routing protocols for flying ad-hoc networks in real conditions, Appl. Sci. 11 (2021), no. 10.
[6] J. Jiang and G. Han, Routing protocols for unmanned aerial vehicles, IEEE Commun. Mag. 56 (2018), no. 1,
[7] M. Khan, I. Khan, A. Safi and I. Quershi, Dynamic routing in flying ad-hoc networks using topology-based routing
protocols, Drones 2 (2018), no. 3.
[8] S. Lee, S. Ali, M.S. Yousefpoor, E. Yousefpoor, P. Lalbakhsh, D. Javaheri, A.M. Rahmani and M. Hosseinzadeh,
An energy-aware and predictive fuzzy logic-based routing scheme in flying ad hoc networks (FANETs), IEEE
Access 9 (2021), 129977–130005.
[9] A. Nayyar, Flying adhoc network (FANETs): simulation based performance comparison of routing protocols:
AODV, DSDV, DSR, OLSR, AOMDV and HWMP, Int. Conf. Adv. Big Data Comput. Data Commun. Syst.
(icABCD), 2018.
[10] H. Nawaz and H. Ali, Efficient power and routing in UAV communication networks, IEEE Int. Conf. Innov. Res.
Dev.(ICIRD), 2019.
[11] O. Oubbati, M. Atiquzzaman, P. Lorenz, M. Tareque and M. Hossain, Routing in flying ad hoc networks: survey,
constraints, and future challenge perspectives, IEEE Access 7 (2019), 81057–81105.
[12] D. Shumeye Lakew, U. Sa’ad, N. Dao, W. Na and S. Cho, Routing in flying ad hoc networks: a comprehensive
survey, IEEE Commun. Surveys Tutor. 22) (2020), no. 2, 1071–1120.
[13] J. Souza, J. Jailton, T. Carvalho, J. Ara´ujo and R. Francˆes, A proposal for routing protocol for FANET: a fuzzy
system approach with QoE/QoS guarantee, Wireless Commun. Mobile Comput. 2019 (2019), 1–10.
[14] Q. Usman, O. Chughtai, N. Nawaz, Z. Kaleem, K. Khaliq and L. Nguyen, A reliable link-adaptive position-based
routing protocol for flying ad hoc network Mobile Networks Appl. 26 (2021), no. 4, 1801–1820.
[15] S. Zaidi, M. Atiquzzaman and C. Calafate, Internet of flying things (IoFT): a survey, Comput. Commun. 165
(2021), 53–74.
Volume 13, Issue 2
July 2022
Pages 1673-1683
  • Receive Date: 16 February 2022
  • Revise Date: 12 May 2022
  • Accept Date: 19 June 2022