The present study is based on presenting a model of factors affecting financial health and the life cycle of listed banks on the Tehran Stock Exchange. For this purpose, at the beginning and after interviews with 48 experts in the fields of accounting and financial management; Factors affecting financial health in the life cycle of banks were identified and, consequently, research hypotheses were developed. In the next step, the theoretical foundations of research are collected by referring to databases, dissertations, and related articles, and in the data analysis section; Financial data of 11 banks for a period of 10 years (2012-2021) were collected, research variables were measured and default regression tests were performed. In the next step; Through multivariate linear regression; Research hypotheses, tests and finally, through nonlinear power regression and artificial neural network algorithms; A model of factors affecting financial health was presented. The findings of the study explained that regardless of the life cycle of banks; financial reporting quality, corporate governance and investment efficiency on banks' financial health; have a positive and significant effect and financial leverage has a negative and significant effect on the financial health of banks. But statistically; The effect of financial reporting quality, corporate governance, financial leverage and investment efficiency on banks' financial health; was not achieved at any stage of their life cycle. Other findings also stated that banks' financial sound forecasts; The firefly algorithm performed better than the backup machine and decision tree algorithms, and the decision tree algorithm performed better than the backup machine algorithm.