Complexity of services and productivity in public organizations; model design and explanation by grounded theory and structural equations

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Government Management, Islamic Azad University, Sari Branch, Sari, Iran

2 Department Public Administration, Islamic Azad University, Gorgan Branch, Gorgan, Iran



The paper aims at developing a model for improving service productivity in public organizations based on the service complexity approach. This is an applied, descriptive qualitative and, quantitative paper. The population in the qualitative section (grounded theory) includes 16 experts in the field of productivity in the university and managers of government organizations in Tehran province who were selected by theoretical sampling method as a method of targeted sampling. The statistical population in the structural equations section includes three categories: 1) Managers and experts of government service organizations; 2) Experts and deputies of government service organizations and, 3) Consultants and experts of government service organizations. In this section, we used multi-stage relative stratified sampling, which according to Cochran's formula, a total of 384 samples acceptable. Thus, the questionnaires were randomly distributed in each of the five regions of the country and, the data from 390 questionnaires were completed through the data analysis algorithm in PLS software. Having analyzed the interviews based on the grounded theory method and in NVivo Plus 2020 software and by open coding, we obtained 143 items as basic concepts from the text of the interviews, which were classified into 31 sub-indices and 11 main indices and five dimensions. Then, we validated and approved the results of the qualitative section through the data analysis algorithm in the PLS software. Given the research findings, we presented and fitted the model of improving service productivity in public organizations based on service complexity in a paradigm model.


Articles in Press, Corrected Proof
Available Online from 18 March 2023
  • Receive Date: 01 January 2022
  • Revise Date: 10 February 2022
  • Accept Date: 05 March 2022
  • First Publish Date: 18 March 2023