A qualitative study of an Eco-Toxicant model with Anti-Predator behavior

Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Mathematics, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Iraq


In this study, a mathematical model consisting of four species: first prey and second prey with stage structure and predator in the presence of toxicity and anti-predator has been proposed and studied using the functional response Holling's type IV and Lotka Volttra. The solution's existence, uniqueness, and boundedness have all been studied. All possible equilibrium points have been identified. The stability of this model has been studied. Finally, numerical simulations have been used to verify our analytical results.


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Volume 12, Issue 2
November 2021
Pages 1861-1882
  • Receive Date: 12 March 2021
  • Revise Date: 02 July 2021
  • Accept Date: 13 July 2021