Evaluation of longitudinal wave velocity and elasticity modulus of concrete at different ages considering mixing ratios

Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

1 Department of Civil Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Civil Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad Branch, Najafabad, Iran

Abstract

Concrete is a material that the mechanical properties of which change over time. This change is due to chemical reactions within the concrete known as hydration. One of these properties is the modulus of elasticity and longitudinal wave velocity, which has a direct relation with the concrete age and its setting. Just after the materials mixing, the concrete setting is fast, and over time its rate decreases. Here, a series of cubic concrete specimens are prepared and changing in longitudinal wave velocity and modulus of elasticity in different ages is monitored during the process of curing and a relationship has been presented. Materials specifications impact and concrete mixing ratios, including the water to cement ratio and fine to coarse aggregates ratio is studied. Ultrasonic wave velocity has been increased faster at early ages of specimens where the concrete setting process is fast and in last days, rates of increasing the longitudinal wave velocity decreases. An increase in the water to cement ratio leads to increases in the longitudinal wave velocity over time. The empirical equations have been formulated as logarithmic curves. These empirical equations have been developed and a model with more efficiency and precision has been presented. These empirical equations can be used in the analytical and numerical analysis of structures. These models can be used to determine the loading time of concrete structures and to predicting their other physical and mechanical properties, such as strength and stiffness.

Keywords

[1] C. ASTM, 597, Standard Test method for Pulse Velocity Through Concrete, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, 2000.
[2] A. Boumiz, C. Vernet and F.C. Tenoudji, Mechanical properties of cement pastes and mortars at early ages: evolution with time and degree of hydration, Adv. Cement Based Mate. 3(3) (1996) 94–106.
[3] BS 1881: Part 207, Recommendations for the assessment of concrete strength by near-to-surface tests, J. Model. Engin. (1992).
[4] T. Gudra and B. Stawiski, Non-destructive strength characterization of concrete using surface waves, NDT and E Int. 33(1) (2000) 1–6.
[5] S.H. Han and J.K. Kim, Effect of temperature and age on the relationship between dynamic and static elastic modulus of concrete, Cement Conc. Res. 34(7) (2004) 1219–1227.
[6] IAEA, Ultrasonic Testing of Materials at Level 2, Training course series.
[7] J. Keating, D. Hannant and A. Hibbert, Correlation between cube strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity and volume change for oil well cement slurries, Cement Conc. Res. 19(5) (1989) 715–726.
[8] J. Krautkr¨amer and H. Krautkr¨amer, Ultrasonic Testing of Materials, Springer Science and Business Media, 2013.
[9] D. Kocab, B. Kucharczykova, P. Misak, P. Zitt and M. Kralikova, Development of the elastic modulus of concrete under different curing conditions, Procedia Engin. 195 (2017) 96–101.
[10] D.S. Lane, Evaluation of Concrete Characteristics for Rigid Pavements, Virginia Transportation Research Council, (No. VTRC-98-R24), 1998.
[11] V. Malhotra and P.K. Mehta, Concrete Technology: Past, Present, and Future, Proc. V. Mohan Malhtra Symp. Amer. Conc. Inst. 1994.[12] V.M. Malhotra, In Situ/nondestructive Testing of Concrete, American Concrete Institute, 1984.
[13] V.M. Malhotra and N.J. Carino, CRC Handbook on Nondestructive Testing of Concrete, CRC press, 1991.
[14] J. Pallant, SPSS Survaival Manual: A Step by Step Guide to Data Analysis Using SPSS, McGraw-Hill Education, 2010.
[15] R.E. Philleo, Comparison of results of three methods for determining young’s modulus of elasticity of concrete, J. Proc. (1955) 461–470.
[16] S. Popovics, Analysis of the concrete strength versus ultrasonic pulse velocity relationship, Mate. Evaluat. 59(2) (2001) 123–130.
[17] S. Popovics, Analysis of concrete strength versus water-cement ratio relationship, Mate. J. 87(5) (1990) 517–529.
[18] J. Popovics, J. Achenbach and W.J. Song, , Application of new ultrasound and sound generation methods for testing concrete structures, Mag. Conc. Res. 51(1) (1999) 35–44.
[19] S. Popovics, N.M. Bilgutay, M. Caraoguz and T. Akgul, High-frequency ultrasound technique for testing concrete, Mate. J. 97(1) (2000) 58–65.
[20] H.Y. Qasrawi and I.A. Marie, The use of USPV to anticipate failure in concrete under compression (In Persian), Cement Conc. Res. 33(12) (2003) 2017–2021.
[21] M. Sabagh and A. Ghalandarzadeh, Centrifugal modeling of continuous shallow tunnels at active normal faults intersection, Transp. Geotech. 22 (2020) 100325.
[22] M. Sabagh and A. Ghalandarzadeh, Centrifuge experiments for shallow tunnels at active reverse fault intersection, Front. Struct. Civil Engin. 14(3) (2020) 731–745.
[23] M. Sabagh and A. Ghalandarzadeh, Numerical modelings of continuous shallow tunnels subject to reverse faulting and its verification through a centrifuge, Comput. Geotech. 128 (2020) 103813.
[24] M. Sabagh, M. Kazemi and M. Asgari, Constitutive model for estimating concrete strength using ultrasonic test considering mixing ratios (In Persian), J. Model. Engin. 17 (2019) 367–374.
[25] S. Sahu, S. Badger, N. Thaulow and R. Lee, Determination of water–cement ratio of hardened concrete by scanning electron microscopy, Cement Conc. Comp. 26(8) (2004) 987–992.
[26] M. Sahmaran, O. Kasap, K. Duru and I. Yaman, Effects of mix composition and water–cement ratio on the sulfate resistance of blended cements, Cement Conc. Comp. 29(3) (2007) 1795–1802.
[27] C. Sayers and A. Dahlin, Propagation of ultrasound through hydrating cement pastes at early times, Adv. Cement Based Mate. 1(1) (1993) 12–21.
[28] C. Sayers and R. Grenfell, Ultrasonic propagation through hydrating cements, Ultrason. 31(3) (1993) 147–153.
[29] G. Trtnik and M. Gams, Ultrasonic assessment of initial compressive strength gain of cement based materials, Cement and Concrete Research, 67 (2015) 148–155.
[30] J. Zhu, S.H. Kee, D. Han and Y.T. Tsai, Effects of air voids on ultrasonic wave propagation in early age cement pastes, Cement Conc. Res. 41(8) (2011) 872–881.
Volume 13, Issue 1
March 2022
Pages 379-396
  • Receive Date: 15 August 2019
  • Accept Date: 18 January 2021