Numerical analysis of ‘On-Off’ control thresholds and coolant flow rate for better performance of a Lithium-Ion battery thermal management system


Department of Automobile Engineering, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, India


Electric vehicles will become an inevitable part of future transportation, because of the increasing concerns of global warming and climate change effects, caused by gasoline and diesel vehicles. Lithium-ion cells are the primary candidates for energy storage in electric vehicles. Lithium-ion cells are sensitive to operating temperatures. Operating them beyond the optimum temperatures, reduces their lifetime and can lead to thermal runaway, at extreme conditions. Hence, a thermal management system is required. In this work, a simple ‘On-Off’ control is used and the upper and lower thresholds are optimized, to reduce the energy consumption and the temperature difference between the cells. 3 coolant flow rates are selected and are analyzed for each upper and lower threshold. A MATLAB Simulink model and spreadsheet are used for analysis. The models are validated by experiments. It is found that a control strategy of $'32^{\circ}C$ to $35^{\circ}C'$, with a coolant flow rate of 0.67 kg $s^{-1}$, among the selected strategies, is better in reducing energy consumption and temperature difference. Running the cells at relatively higher temperatures, within the optimum range, helps in reducing energy consumption and temperature difference.


[1] Y. Abdul-Quadir, T. Laurila, J. Karppinen, K. Jalkanen, K. Vuorilehto, L. Skogstr¨om and M. Paulasto-Kr¨ockel,
Heat generation in high power prismatic Li-ion battery cell with LiMnN iCoO2 cathode material, Int. J. Energy
Res. 38(11) (2014) 1424–1437.
[2] A. Abdul Razzaque and R. Prashant Kumar, CFD analysis of aerodynamic design of maruti Alto car, Int. J.
Mechanical Eng. Tech. 8(3) (2017) 388–399.
[3] Z. An, L. Jia, Y. Ding, C. Dang and X. Li, A review on lithium-ion power battery thermal management technologies
and thermal safety, J. Therm. Sci. 26(5) (2017) 391–412.
[4] K. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. She, M. Song, S. Wang and L. Chen, Construction of effective symmetrical air-cooled
system for battery thermal management, Appl. Therm. Eng. 166 (2020) 114679.
[5] Y. Deng, C. Feng, J. E, H. Zhu, J. Chen, M. Wen and H. Yin, Effects of different coolants and cooling strategies
on the cooling performance of the power lithium ion battery system: A review, Appl. Therm. Eng. 142 (2018)
[6] H.S. Hamut, I. Dincer, G.F. Naterer, Performance assessment of thermal management systems for electric and
hybrid electric vehicles, Int. J. Energy Res. 37(1) (2013) 1–12.
[7] J. Kang, G. Rizzoni, Study of relationship between temperature and thermal energy, operating conditions as well
as environmental factors in large-scale lithium-ion batteries, Int. J. Energy Res. 38(15) (2014) 1994–2002.[8] G. Karimi and X. Li, Thermal management of lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles, Int. J. Energy Res. 37(1)
(2012) 13–24.
[9] S.A. Khateeb, M.M. Farid, J.R. Selman and S. Al-Hallaj, Design and simulation of a lithium-ion battery with
a phase change material thermal management system for an electric scooter, J. Power Sources 128(2) (2004)
[10] A. Kopczy´nski, Z. Liu, P. Krawczyk, Parametric analysis of Li-ion battery based on laboratory tests, E3S Web of
Conf. 44 (2018) 00074.
[11] A. Lazrak, J.-F. Fourmigu´e and J.-F. Robin, An innovative practical battery thermal management system based
on phase change materials: Numerical and experimental investigations, Appl. Therm. Eng. 128 (2018) 20–32.
[12] F. Leng, C. Tan and M. Pecht, Effect of temperature on the aging rate of Li Ion battery operating above room
temperature, Sci Rep. 5 (2015) 12967.
[13] Y. Li, Y. Du, T. Xu, H. Wu, X. Zhou, Z. Ling and Z. Zhang, Optimization of thermal management system for
Li-ion batteries using phase change material, Appl. Therm. Eng. 131 (2018) 766–778.
[14] K. Li, J. Yan, H. Chen and Q. Wang, Water cooling based strategy for lithium ion battery pack dynamic cycling
for thermal management system, Appl. Therm. Eng. 132 (2018) 575–585.
[15] Z. Ling, F. Wang, X. Fang, X. Gao and Z. Zhang, A hybrid thermal management system for lithiumion batteries
combining phase change materials with forced-air cooling, Appl. Energy 148 (2015) 403–409.
[16] Z. Lu, X.L. Yu, L.C. Wei, F. Cao, L.Y. Zhang, X.Z. Meng and L.W. Jin, A comprehensive experimental study on
temperature-dependent performance of lithium-ion battery, Appl. Therm. Eng. 158 (2019) 113800.
[17] M. Malik, I. Dincer and M.A. Rosen, Review on use of phase change materials in battery thermal management
for electric and hybrid electric vehicles, Int. J. Energy Res. 40(8) (2016) 1011–1031.
[18] M. Malik, I. Dincer, M.A. Rosen, M. Mathew and M. Fowler, Thermal and electrical performance evaluations of
series connected Li-ion batteries in a pack with liquid cooling, Appl. Therm. Eng. 129 (2018) 472–481.
[19] N. Mao, Z.-R. Wang, Y.-H. Chung and C.-M. Shu, Overcharge cycling effect on the thermal behavior, structure,
and material of lithium-ion batteries, Appl. Therm. Eng. 163 (2019) 114147.
[20] N. Omar, D. Widanage, M. Abdel Monem Y. Firouz, O. Hegazy, P. Van den Bossche, T. Coosemans and J.
Van Mierlo, Optimization of an advanced battery model parameter minimization tool and development of a novel
electrical model for lithium-ion batteries, Int. Trans. Electr. Energ. Syst. 24(12) (2013) 1747–1767.
[21] A.A. Pesaran, Battery thermal models for hybrid vehicle simulations, J. Power Sources 10(2) (2002) 377–382.
[22] A. Ritchie and W. Howard, Recent developments and likely advances in lithium-ion batteries, J. Power Sources
162(2) (2006) 809–812.
[23] R. Sabbah, R. Kizilel, J.R. Selman and S. Al-Hallaj, Active (air-cooled) vs. passive (phase change material)
thermal management of high power lithium-ion packs: limitation of temperature rise and uniformity of temperature
distribution, J. Power Sources 182(2) (2008) 630–638.
[24] M. Tan, Y. Gan, J. Liang, L. He, Y. Li, S. Song and Y. Shi, Effect of initial temperature on electrochemical and
thermal characteristics of a lithium-ion battery during charging process, Appl. Therm. Eng. 177 (2020) 115500.
[25] N. Terada, Development of lithium batteries for energy storage and EV applications, J. Power Sources 100(1-2)
(2001) 80–92.
[26] V.V. Viswanathan, D. Choi, D. Wang, W. Xu, S. Towne, R.E. Williford, J.-G. Zhang, J. Liu and Z. Yang, Effect
of entropy change of lithium intercalation in cathodes and anodes on Li-ion battery thermal management, J. Power
Sources 195(11) (2010) 3720–3729.
[27] S. Wang, K. Li, Y. Tian, J. Wang, Y. Wu and S. Ji, An experimental and numerical examination on the thermal
inertia of a cylindrical lithium-ion power battery, Appl. Therm. Eng. 154 (2019) 676–685.
[28] H. Wang, T. Tao, J. Xu, X. Mei, X. Liu and P. Gou, Cooling capacity of a novel modular liquid-cooled battery
thermal management system for cylindrical lithium ion batteries, Appl. Therm. Eng. 178 (2020) 115591.
[29] H. Wang, W. Xu, L. Ma, Actively controlled thermal management of prismatic lithium-ion cells under elevated
temperatures, Int. J. Heat and Mass Transf. 102 (2016) 315–322.
[30] N. Yang, X. Zhang, G. Li and D. Hua, Assessment of the forced air-cooling performance for cylindrical lithiumion battery packs: a comparative analysis between aligned and staggered cell arrangements, Appl. Therm. Eng. 80
(2015) 55–65.
[31] N. Yang, X. Zhang, B. Shang, B.B. Shang and S. Li, Unbalanced discharging and aging due to temperature
differences among the cells in a lithium-ion battery pack with parallel combination, J. Power Sources 306 (2016)
[32] W. Yang, F. Zhou, H. Zhou, Q. Wang and J. Kong, Thermal performance of cylindrical lithium-ion battery
thermal management system integrated with mini-channel liquid cooling and air cooling, Appl. Therm. Eng. 175
(2020) 115331.[33] Y. Ye, L.H. Saw, Y. Shi and A.A. Tay, Numerical analyses on optimizing a heat pipe thermal management system
for lithium-ion batteries during fast charging, Appl. Therm. Eng. 86 (2015) 281–291.
[34] H. Zhang, C. Li, R. Zhang, Y. Lin and H. Fang, Thermal analysis of a 6s4p Lithium-ion battery pack cooled by
cold plates based on a multi-domain modeling framework, Appl. Therm. Eng. 173 (2020) 115216.
Volume 12, Special Issue
December 2021
Pages 1775-1791
  • Receive Date: 29 July 2021
  • Revise Date: 30 October 2021
  • Accept Date: 21 November 2021