Using steganography techniques for implicit authentication to enhance sensitive data hiding

Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

Department of Computer Science, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq

Abstract

Smartphones recently become indispensable to users due to the services provided, like Internet access and important applications (e.g., financial and health applications). which contain personal and confidential information about the user. Consequently, this information is vulnerable to hackers and data privacy violations. This article describes the effective safeguard of sensitive data from different attacks. It's the second level of protection after using implicit authentication. If implicit authentication allows an unauthorized user to access sensitive data, we encrypt it using AES-GCM and hide it under a cover image with LSB Steganography. We noticed that recommended solution is highly effective at data protection while consuming less Memory and being relatively fast. To evaluate the system's efficacy, Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio(PSNR), Means Square Error(MSE), and Pearson Coefficient Correlation (PCC)are employed as evaluation metrics. Best results are found in sunset image 27KB, with values of MSE (0.005245) and PSNR (70.9547). The (PCC) values are always zero, indicating that there is no relationship between the original text and the encrypted text, implying that the AES-GCM encryption is effective.

Keywords

[1] N.H.M. Ali, A.M.S. Rahma and A.S. Jamil, Text hiding in color images using the secret key transformation
function in GF (2 n), Iraqi J. Sci. 56(4B) (2015) 3240–3245.
[2] A. Ali, A.-H.S. Saad and A.H. Ismael, VRNFC-Stego: Data hiding technique based on VR images and NFCenabled smartphones, Procedia Comput. Sci. 171 (2020) 1551–1560.
[3] R. Apau and C. Adomako, Design of image steganography based on RSA algorithm and LSB insertion for android
smartphones, Int. J. Comput. Appl. 164(1) (2017).
[4] A.S. Bader and A.M. Sagheer, Modification on AES-GCM to increment ciphertext randomness, Trans. Int. J.
Math. Sci. Comput. 4 (2018) 34-40.[5] M.J. Dworkin, Sp 800-38d. recommendation for block cipher modes of operation: Galois/counter mode (gcm) and
gmac, NIST Special Publication 800-38D, (2007).
[6] R.J. Essa, N.A. Abdullah and R.D. AL-Dabbagh, Steganography technique using cenetic algorithm, Iraqi J. Sci.
59(3A) (2018) 1312–1325.
[7] E.S.I. Harba, Advanced password authentication protection by hybrid cryptography & audio steganography, Iraqi
J. Sci. 59(1C) (2018) 600–606.
[8] A.A. Ibrahim, L.E. George and E.K. Hassan, Color image compression system by using block categorization based
on spatial details and DCT followed by improved entropy encoder, Iraqi J. Sci. 61(11) (2020) 3127–3140.
[9] R.K. Kyei, J.K. Panford and J.B. Hayfron-Acquah, Enhancing data security in android smartphones using image
steganography, RSA encryption with LSB insertion, Int. J. Comput. Sci. Info. Secur. 17(2) (2019).
[10] X. Ma, Z. Wang, S. Zhou, H. Wen and Y. Zhang, Intelligent healthcare systems assisted by data analytics and
mobile computing, Int. Wireless Commun. Mobile Comput. Conf. 2018, pp. 1317–1322.
[11] M.M Mukaka, Statistics corner: A guide to appropriate use of correlation coefficient in medical research, Malawi
Med. J. 24(3) (2012).
[12] R.M. Neamah, J.A. Abed and E.A. Abbood, Hide text depending on the three channels of pixels in color images
using the modified LSB algorithm, Int. J. Electr. Comput. Eng. 10(1) (2020).
[13] M. Rodr´─▒guez, A. Astarloa, J. L´azaro, U. Bidarte and J. Jim´enez, System-on-programmable-chip AES-GCM
implementation for wire-speed cryptography for SAS, Conf. Design of Circuits and Integrated Systems (DCIS),
IEEE, 2018, pp. 1–6.
[14] R. Singh, An overview of android operating system and its security features, J. Eng. Res. Appl. 4(2) (2014)
519–521.
[15] Y. Sovyn, V. Khoma and M. Podpora, Comparison of three CPU-Core families for IoT applications in terms of
securityand performance of AES-GCM, IEEE IOT J. 7(1) (2020).
Volume 13, Issue 1
March 2022
Pages 3973-3983
  • Receive Date: 06 November 2021
  • Revise Date: 25 January 2022
  • Accept Date: 04 February 2022
  • First Publish Date: 18 February 2022