Developing a green vehicle routing problem model with time windows and simultaneous pickup and delivery under demand uncertainty: Minimizing fuel consumption

Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Industrial Engineering, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran


The vehicle routing problem has attracted much attention in the recent decade. Considering the real-world constraints, many extensions have been developed. This paper develops a new model for the green vehicle routing problem with simultaneous pickup and delivery under demand uncertainty. Due to the problem's complexity, the standard solvers are only able to solve small-scale instances. To solve the large-scale problems, a two-stage algorithm based on the modified AVNS is proposed. Extensive computational experiments are conducted using modified versions of Solomon’s benchmark instances to show the performance of the algorithm. The results affirm that the two-stage algorithm is capable of generating optimal solutions for small-size instances and the planned routes generated for large-size instances were significantly more robust against the increase of uncertainty parameters.


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Volume 14, Issue 1
January 2023
Pages 2655-2669
  • Receive Date: 04 February 2021
  • Revise Date: 20 April 2021
  • Accept Date: 30 April 2021
  • First Publish Date: 15 July 2022