Blockchain as a foundation to support healthcare systems

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Information Technology Department, College of Computer and Information Technology, University of Garmian, Kalar, Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

2 Department of English, College of Education, University of Garmian, Kalar, Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq


In terms of data transparency, provenance, authenticity, verification, data provenance, propositions, reliability, transparency, and safety, today's healthcare data management systems face significant hurdles. Blockchain refers to a decentralized network of computer nodes that may survive together without needing to rely on one another and preserve identical data. The use of blockchain technologies for the provision of safe and confidential healthcare managing data had also attracted considerable interest. In terms of accurate diagnosis and care through safe and secure intelligence sharing, blockchain is also converting traditional care methods into more dependable methods. Blockchain technology has the potential to contribute to personalized, authentic, and secure healthcare in the future by combining every actual relevant data to a particular patient and displaying it in a modern, safe healthcare environment. By using blockchain as a framework, we examine both the recent and current changes in the healthcare industry in this article. Together with problems and answers. This paper identifies challenges and opportunities for implementing blockchain technology in healthcare and summarizes health-related blockchain products and key players offering solutions across different applications. In doing this, our research extends and complements existing blockchain research in healthcare.


[1] J. Adler-Milstein, A.J. Holmgren, P. Kralovec, C. Worzala, T. Searcy, and V. Patel, Electronic health record adoption in US hospitals: the emergence of a digital “advanced use” divide, J. Amer. Med. Inf. Assoc. 24 (2017), no. 6, 1142–1148.
[2] N. Alzahrani and N. Bulusu, Towards true decentralization: A blockchain consensus protocol based on game theory and randomness, Springer, 2018, pp. 465–485.
[3] M. Attaran, Blockchain technology in healthcare: Challenges and opportunities, Int. J. Healthcare Manag. 15 (2022), no. 1, 70–83.
[4] Ahmed Ben Ayed, A conceptual secure blockchain based electronic voting system, Int. J. Network Secur. Appl. 9 (2017), no. 3, 01–09.
[5] M. Benchoufi and P. Ravaud, Blockchain technology for improving clinical research quality, Trials 18 (2017), no. 1, 335.
[6] E. Bertino, A. Kundu, and Z. Sura, Data transparency with blockchain and AI ethics, J. Data Inf. Qual. 11 (2019), no. 4, 1–8, Publisher: ACM New York, NY, USA.
[7] C. Esposito, A. De Santis, G. Tortora, H. Chang, and K.-K.R. Choo, Blockchain: A panacea for healthcare
cloud-based data security and privacy?, IEEE Cloud Comput. 5 (2018), no. 1, 31–37.
[8] A. Fusco, G. Dicuonzo, V. Dell’Atti, and M. Tatullo, Blockchain in healthcare: Insights on COVID-19, Int. J.
Envir. Res. Public Health 17 (2020), no. 19, 7167.
[9] R.M. Garcia-Teruel, Legal challenges and opportunities of blockchain technology in the real estate sector, J. Property Plan. Envir. Law 12 (2020), no. 2, 129–145.
[10] K.N. Griggs, O. Ossipova, C.P. Kohlios, A.N. Baccarini, E.A. Howson, and T. Hayajneh, Healthcare blockchain
system using smart contracts for secure automated remote patient monitoring, J. Med. Syst. 42 (2018), no. 7, 1–7.
[11] E. G¨okalp, M. Onuralp G¨okalp, S. C¸ oban, and P.E. Eren, Analysing opportunities and challenges of integrated
blockchain technologies in healthcare, Eurosymp. Syst. Anal. Design (2018), 174–183.
[12] N. Jothi, N.A.A. Rashid, and W. Husain, Data mining in healthcare: A review, Procedia Comput. Sci. 72 (2015), 306–313.
[13] M. Kassab, J. DeFranco, T. Malas, P. Laplante, G. Destefanis, and V.V.G. Neto, Exploring research in blockchain for healthcare and a roadmap for the future, IEEE Trans. Emerg. Topics Comput. 9 (2021), no. 4, 1835–1852.
[14] R. Kumar and R. Tripathi, Traceability of counterfeit medicine supply chain through Blockchain, IEEE, 2019, pp. 568 570.
[15] T. Kumar, V. Ramani, I. Ahmad, A. Braeken, E. Harjula, and M. Ylianttila, Blockchain utilization in healthcare: Key requirements and challenges, IEEE 20th Int. Conf. e-Health Network. Appl. Serv. (Healthcom) (Ostrava), IEEE, September 2018, pp. 1–7.
[16] D.P. Oyinloye, J.S. Teh, N. Jamil, and M. Alawida, Blockchain consensus: An overview of alternative protocols, Symmetry 13 (2021), no. 8, 1363.
[17] P. Pandey and R. Litoriya, Securing E-health networks from counterfeit medicine penetration using blockchain, Wireless Person. Commun. 117 (2021), no. 1, 7–25.
[18] M.R. Patra, R.K. Das, and R.P. Padhy, CRHIS: cloud based rural healthcare information system, 2012, pp. 402– 405.
[19] M.T. Quasim, F. Algarni, A.A.E. Radwan, and G.M.M. Alshmrani, A blockchain based secured healthcare framework, IEEE, 2020, pp. 386–391.
[20] M.Y. Shakor, M.I. Khaleel, and F.S. Abed, Enhancing cloud storage privacy (CSP) based on hybrid cryptographic techniques, J. Garmian Univ. 6 (2019), no. 1, 582–594.
[21] M. Sigwart, M. Borkowski, S. Peise, M.and Schulte, and S. Tai, Blockchain-based data provenance for the Internet of Things, 2019, pp. 1–8.
[22] A.A. Siyal, A.Z. Junejo, M. Zawish, K. Ahmed, A. Khalil, and G. Soursou, Applications of blockchain technology in medicine and healthcare: Challenges and future perspectives, Cryptography 3 (2019), no. 1, 3.
[23] L. Soltanisehat, R. Alizadeh, H. Hao, and K.-K.R. Choo, Technical, temporal, and spatial research challenges and opportunities in blockchain-based healthcare: A systematic literature review, IEEE Trans. Engin. Manag. (2020).
[24] S. Tanwar, K. Parekh, and R. Evans, Blockchain-based electronic healthcare record system for healthcare 4.0 applications, J. Inf. Secur. Appl. 50 (2020), 102407.
[25] W. Wang, D.T. Hoang, P. Hu, Z. Xiong, D. Niyato, P. Wang, Y. Wen, and D.I. Kim, A survey on consensus mechanisms and mining strategy management in blockchain networks, IEEE Access 7 (2019), 22328–22370.
[26] K. Wu, B. Peng, H. Xie, and Z. Huang, An information entropy method to quantify the degrees of decentralization for blockchain systems, IEEE, 2019, pp. 1–6.
[27] Y. Xiao, N. Zhang, W. Lou, and Y.T. Hou, A survey of distributed consensus protocols for blockchain networks, IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutor. 22 (2020), no. 2, 1432–1465.
[28] X. Yue, H. Wang, D. Jin, M. Li, and W. Jiang, Healthcare data gateways: Found healthcare intelligence on blockchain with novel privacy risk control, J. Med. Syst. 40 (2016), no. 10, 218.
[29] P. Zhang, J. White, D.C. Schmidt, G. Lenz, and S.T. Rosenbloom, FHIRChain: Applying blockchain to securely and scalably share clinical data, Comput. Struc. Biotech. J. 16 (2018), 267–278.
[30] Z. Zheng, S. Xie, H. Dai, X. Chen, and H. Wang, An overview of blockchain technology: Architecture, consensus, and future trends, IEEE Int. Cong. Big Data (BigData Cong.) (Honolulu, HI, USA), IEEE, June 2017, pp. 557– 564.
Volume 14, Issue 1
January 2023
Pages 2183-2191
  • Receive Date: 12 August 2022
  • Revise Date: 16 September 2022
  • Accept Date: 08 November 2022