The influence of Ambidextrous leadership on the Perma model of worker welfare

Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Industrial Management, College of Administration and Economics, University of Baghdad, Iraq


The research aims to know the extent of the influence of Ambidextrous leadership on the Perma model for the well-being of workers and to indicate which of the two companies is the best in directing and investing the dimensions of the concepts of (Ambidextrous leadership) and (Perma Model), but the problem faced by organizations working in the field of communications in the contemporary business environment with The digital trend and the network economy from the intensity of competition and the acceleration of electronic developments and the poor access to resources, so the research focused on (the General Company for Communications and Informatics, the General Salam Company) as a community for research, as an intentional sample of (273) people from the senior leadership was chosen. The General Company for Communications and Informatics and Al-Salam Company, as it included a sample of administrative leaders (47) people according to the law (Herbert Arkin), and the comparative analytical descriptive approach was followed and information and data were collected through the questionnaire. The most important results, which is the interest of the senior leaders in the sample surveyed in the dimensions of Ambidextrous leadership, as well as the presence of a significant effect of Ambidextrous leadership in the Perma model of the two companies, which is a direct effect and that the Ambidextrous leadership explains a higher percentage in the Perma model of the General Peace Company, while the Ambidextrous leadership explains a lower percentage in the Perma model of the General Company for Communications and Informatics.


[1] M. Ahlers and M. Wilms, Ambidextrous leadership in innovation: A multiple case study of innovation leaders on the alignment of opening and closing leader behaviors, Master’s thesis, Link¨oping University, Sweden, 2017.
[2] A. Alcorne, The mediating role of organizational ingenuity in strengthening the relationship between strategic agility and competitive advantage at the university of Tabuk: A predictive correlation study, Department of Administration and Educational Planning, College of Education and Arts, University of Tabuk, Saudi Arabi, 2020.
[3] S.N.S. Al-Eida, The impact of ambidextrous leadership on organizational excellence: An applied study in small and medium enterprises in Qatar, Int. J. Bus. Manag. 15 (2020), no. 9, p. 163.
[4] F. Alghamdi, Ambidextrous leadership, ambidextrous employee, and the interaction between ambidextrous leadership and employee innovative performance, J. Innov. Entrepr. 7 (2018), no.1, p. 1.
[5] S.S. AlKhawaldeh, The ambidextrous leadership and its impact on organizational performance in the Jordanian government schools from the viewpoint of teachers, Br. J. Educat. 8 (2020), no. 2, 63–73.
[6] E. Altindag and I. Erarslan, The effects of organizational ambidexterity and justice on organizational learning, Int. J. Res. Bus. Soc. Sci. 10 (2021), no. 1, 01–14.
[7] H. Barnard, The wellbeing of families in a South African resource-constrained community, PhD diss. University of Pretoria, 2018.
[8] J. Bentham, An introduction to the principles of morals and legislation (1789), ed. by J.H. Burns and H.L.A. Hart, London, 1970.
[9] J. Birkinshaw and K. Gupta, Clarifying the distinctive contribution of ambidexterity to the field of organization studies, Acad. Manag. Persp. 27 (2013), no. 4, 287-298.
[10] T. Bucic, L. Robinson and P. Ramburuth, Effects of leadership style on team learning, J. Workplace Learn. 22 (2010), no. 4, 228–248.
[11] J. Butler and M.L. Kern, The Perma-Profiler: A brief multidimensional measure of flourishing, Int. J. Wellbeing 6 (2016), no. 3, 1–48.
[12] A. Chandrasekaran, K. Linderman and R. Schroeder, Antecedents to ambidexterity competency in high technology organizations, J. Oper. Manag. 30 (2012), no. 1–2, 134–151.
[13] N.J. Coleman, An exploration of the role of leadership behaviors and Ambidexterity in online learning units, Doctoral Dissertation, The George Washington University, 2016.
[14] A. Delle Fave, F. Massimini and M. Bassi, Hedonism and Eudaimonism in positive psychology, Psychological selection and optimal experience across cultures, Springer, Dordrecht, 2011, pp. 3–18.
[15] E. Diener, Subjective well-being, Psych. Bull. 95 (1984), no. 3, 542–575.
[16] E. Diener and M.Y. Chan, Happy people live longer: Subjective well-being contributes to health and longevity, Appl. Psych.: Health and Wellbeing 3 (2011), no. 1, 1–43.
[17] E. Diener, S. Oishi and S. Kesebir, Income inequality and happiness, Psych. Sci. 22 (2011), no. 9, 1095–1100.
[18] A.L. Duckworth, C. Peterson, M.D. Matthews and D.R. Kelly, Grit: Perseverance and passion for long-term goals, J. Person. Soc. Psych. 9 (2007), 1087–1101.
[19] M.A. Findikli, The relationship between perception of organizational culture and organizational duality: The mediating effect of information sharing at organizational level, Celal Bayar Univer. Yonetim Ekon. Dergisi 21 (2014), no. 1, 155–171.
[20] J.J. Froh, The history of positive psychology: Truth be told, NYS Psych. 16 (2004), no. 3, 18–20.
[21] E. Gorgenyi-Hegyes, R.J. Nathan and M. Fekete-Farkas, Workplace health promotion, employee wellbeing and loyalty during covid-19 pandemic—large scale empirical evidence from Hungary, Economies 9 (2021), no. 2, 55.
[22] J. Han, K. Huang and S. Shen, Are tourism practitioners happy? The role of explanatory style played on tourism practitioners’ psychological well-being, Sustainability 14 (2022), no. 9, p. 4881.
[23] L.A. Havermans, D.N. Den Hartog, A. Keegan and M. Uhl-Bien, Exploring the role of leadership in enabling contextual ambidexterity, Human Resource Manag. 54 (2015), no. S1, 179–200.
[24] T. Hendriks, M. Schotanus-Dijkstra, A. Hassankhan, J. De Jong and E. Bohlmeijer, The efficacy of multicomponent positive psychology interventions: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, J. Happiness Stud. 21 (2020), no. 1, 357–390.
[25] L. Hone, A. Jarden, C.M. Schofield and S. Duncan, Measuring flourishing: The impact of operational definitions on the prevalence of high levels of wellbeing, Int. J. Wellbeing 4 (2014), no. 1, 62–90.
[26] W.A. Kahn, Psychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work, Academy Manag. J. 33 (1990), no. 4, 692–724.
[27] M. Kavali´c, M. Nikoli´c, D. Radosav, S. Stanisavljev and M. Peňácujlija, Influencing factors on knowledge management for organizational sustainability, Sustainability 13 (2021), no. 3, p. 1497.
[28] T.T. Kooi, The Influence of CEO ambidextrous leadership on firm operational and innovative performance: Empirical research on Chinese enterprises, PhD Dissertation, Fordham University, 2020.
[29] C.O. Longenecker, M.J. Neubert and L.S. Fink, Causes and consequences of managerial failure in rapidly changing organizations, Bus. Horizons 50 (2007), no. 2, 145–155.
[30] D.W. Lutz, African Ubuntu philosophy and global management, J. Bus. Ethics 84 (2009), no. 3, 313.
[31] S. Lyubomirsky, L. King and E. Diener, The benefits of frequent positive affect: Does happiness lead to success?, Psych. Bull. 131 (2007), no. 6, 803–855.
[32] J. Ma, X. Zhou, R. Chen and X. Dong, Does ambidextrous leadership motivate work crafting?, Int. J. Hospital. Manag. 77 (2018), 159–168.
[33] R. Mac Conville and T. Mae, Building happiness, resiliency and motivation in adolescents: A positive psychology curriculum for wellbeing, Jessica Kingsley Publishers, London, 2012.
[34] A.H. Maslow, Motivation and personality, Harper & Row, New York, United States, 1954.
[35] A.A.F. Mickers, Leading organizational change in ambidextrous environments: Insight in the use of contextual ambidexterity in SMEs to increase commitment to change, Department Organization & Strategy–Strategic Management, Tilburg University, 2011.
[36] H. Misiak and V.S. Sexton, History of psychology: An overview, New York, United States: Grune & Stratton, 1966.
[37] M.D. Moreno Luzon and J.V. Pasola, Ambidexterity and total quality management: Towards a research agenda, Manag. Decision 49 (2011), no. 6, 927–947.
[38] A. Mystridis, Ambidextrous leadership and innovative work behaviors: The role of creative process engagement and creative role identity, Master’s thesis, Social, Health and Organizational Psychology, Utrecht University, 2020.
[39] Z.H. Mzher, Employing skillful leadership behaviors to enhance creative behavior, the mediating role of perceived self-efficacy, an analytical study of the opinions of a sample of faculty members at the faculties of the University of Al-Qadisiyah, Master’s thesis, University of Al-Qadisiyah, 2017.
[40] J. Norrish, Positive education: The Geelong grammar school journey, Oxford University Press, United Kingdom, 2015.
[41] D.L. Norton, Personal destinies, Amsterdam, Netherlands, Amsterdam University Press, 1977.
[42] R. Pahil, Collaborative pursuit of flourishing, PhD Dissertation, University of Birmingham, 2019.
[43] C. Peterson and M.E.P. Seligman, Character strengths and virtues: A handbook and classification, Washington, United States: American Psychological Association, 2004.
[44] E.L. Pollard and P.D. Lee, Child well-being: A systematic review of the literature, Soc. Indicat. Res. 61 (2003), no. 1, 59–78.
[45] G. Probst, S. Raisch and M.L. Tushman, Ambidextrous leadership: Emerging challenges for business and HR leaders, Organ. Dyn. 40 (2011), no. 4, 326–334.
[46] K. Rosing, M. Frese and A. Bausch, Explaining the heterogeneity of the leadership-innovation relationship: Ambidextrous leadership, Leadership Quart. 22 (2011), no. 5, 956–974.
[47] W.D. Ross, The Nicomachean ethics of Aristotle, Oxford University Press, Oxford, United Kingdom, 1925.
[48] F.T. Rothaermel and M.T. Alexandre, Ambidexterity in technology sourcing: The moderating role of absorptive capacity, Organ. Sci. 20 (2004), no. 4, 759–780.
[49] R.M. Ryan and E.L. Deci, Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being, Amer. Psych. 55 (2000), no. 1, 68–78.
[50] N. Saputra, Manajemen dan kepemimpinan kontemporer: A scholarly practitioner perspective, Scopindo Media Pustaka, Surabaya, 2021.
[51] A. Schindler, Ambidextrous leadership: The role of flexibly switching between opening and closing leadership behaviors for team innovative outcome in the case of management consultancies, M.Sc. Thesis. University of Twente, 2015.
[52] S.A. Schnitker, T.J. Felke, N.A. Fernandez, N. Redmond and A.E. Blews, Efficacy of self-control and patience interventions in adolescents, Appl. Dev. Sci. 21 (2017), no. 3, 165–183.
[53] M.E.P. Seligman, Authentic happiness, Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2002.
[54] M.E.P. Seligman, Flourish: Positive psychology and positive interventions, Tanner Lectures on Human Values 31 (2010), no. 4, 1–56.
[55] M.E.P. Seligman, Flourish: A visionary new understanding of happiness and well-being, Free Press, New York, 2011.
[56] R.M. Stogdill, Handbook of leadership, Free Press, New York, 1974.
[57] L. Tay, J.O. Pawelski and M.G. Keith, The role of the arts and humanities in human flourishing: A conceptual model, J. Positive Psych. 13 (2017), no. 3, p. 215.
[58] A.J. Vario, Organizational ambidexterity in nonprofit organizations: A descriptive case study to uncover the innovative practices of a New England–based nonprofit organization as perceived by key organizational decision makers, Northeastern University College of Professional Studies, Doctorate Thesis, 2017.
[59] D. Vera and M. Crossan, Strategic leadership and organizational learning, Acad. Manag. Rev. 29 (2004), no. 2,222–240.
[60] J.C. Viljoen, Investigating the use of the PERMA theory of wellbeing in the New Zealand general social survey: A thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey university, Albany, New Zealand, PhD Dissertation, Massey University, 2018.
[61] A.S. Waterman, Two conceptions of happiness: Contrasts of personal expressiveness (eudaimonia) and hedonic enjoyment, J. Personal. Soc. Psych. 64 (1993), no. 4, 678–691.
[62] H. Zacher and K. Rosing, Ambidextrous leadership and team innovation, Leadership Organ. Dev. J. 36 (2015), no. 1, 54–68.
Volume 14, Issue 1
January 2023
Pages 2313-2326
  • Receive Date: 08 August 2022
  • Revise Date: 17 September 2022
  • Accept Date: 07 November 2022