Zero watermarking technique using LWT

Document Type : Research Paper


Mathematics and Computer Applications, Applied Sciences Department, University of Technology, Baghdad 10001, Iraq


It is no secret to anyone the essential steps of mathematics in image processing and especially in image watermarking techniques. Transformations are one of the most important mathematical tools used in image processing. It is possible to reduce the size of the image very efficiently and extract important information from it. On the other hand,  transformations enable us to move smoothly from the world of image processing (spacial domain) to the world of mathematics and matrices (frequency domain). In this paper, to build a zero-watermarking algorithm, the integer wavelet transform (IWT), is used alone to show the mathematical effect of the results obtained from the proposed zero-watermarking algorithms. One level of IWT is applied to the concealment image and the watermark is XORed with the features chosen from the crucial information obtained from the LL channel to generate the secret share. The results were very satisfactory and the proposed algorithm proved its resistance to different attacks through the robustness metric NC.


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Volume 14, Issue 1
January 2023
Pages 2399-2407
  • Receive Date: 02 September 2022
  • Revise Date: 14 December 2023
  • Accept Date: 01 January 2023