Numerical analysis to investigate the effect partially filled of porous media inserted in a square channel for different locations

Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Technology, Baghdad, Iraq


Various methods are used to improve the heat transfer coefficient of fluids flow inside the various cross-sections of channels, and one of these methods is the use of porous media (PM) in various engineering and industrial applications such as heat exchangers and storage tanks for solar energy. This research paper shows a numerical study using the COMSOL Multiphysics 6.0 program, the effect of the PM (Glass Spheres) inside a square-shaped channel (12 * 12 cm$^2$) by taking three different locations of the PM for two cases (constant heat flux, and constant wall temperature) at the lower surface of a test section and knowing their effect on the distribution of temperature, and velocity to compare them with the absence of the PM for the same channel. The results showed the best temperature distribution to get the best heat transfer coefficient and thus increase the Nusselt number in position (1) of the PM for the test section.


[1] R. Draby, Chemical engineering fluid mechanics, 2 ed., Marcel Dekker, New York, 2001.
[2] K.Gh. Fadhala, E.M. Fayyadh, and A.. Mohammed, Effect of copper foam baffles on thermal hydraulic performance for staggered arrangement in a duct, Engin. Technol. J. 41 (2022), no. 1, 243–256.
[3] K.H. Hilal, Fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics in a vertical tube packed bed media, Ph.D. thesis, University of Technology, 2004.
[4] C. Hu, Y. Zeng, M. Zhang, and H. Zhang, Numerical simulation on the forced convection heat transfer of porous medium for turbine engine heat exchanger applications, Appl. Thermal Engin. 180 (2020), 115845.
[5] P.C. Huang and K. Vafai, Analysis of forced convection enhancement in a channel using porous blocks, J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 8 (1994), no. 3, 563–573.
[6] Jalal M. Jalil and Shrooq J. Ali, Thermal investigations of double pass solar air heater with two types of porous media of different thermal conductivity, Engin. Technol. J. 39 (2021), no. 1A, 79–88.
[7] P.-X. Jiang and Z.-P. Ren, Numerical investigation of forced convection heat transfer in porous media using a thermal non-equilibrium model, Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 22 (2001), no. 1, 102–110.
[8] S. Kadhrawi, F.S. Oueslati, and R. Bennacer, Mixed convection in a channel partially filled with metal foam blocks, MATEC Web Conf. 330 (2020).
[9] B.J. Kkihlefa, A.A. Jaddoa, and A.H. Reja, The influence of convection heat transfers for vertical mini-tubes using solvent carbon dioxide and porous media at supercritical pressure, Engin. Technol.J. 39 (2021), no. 9, 1409–1419.
[10] S.. Mahdi and S.A. Rasheed, Experimental study convection heat transfer inside the triangular duct filled with porous media, Engin. Technol. J. 41 (2022), no. 1, 203–217.
[11] M.E. Nimvari, M. Maerefat, and M.K. El-Hossaini, Numerical simulation of turbulent flow and heat transfer in a channel partially filled with a porous media, Int. J. Thermal Sci. 60 (2012), 131–141.
[12] H. Shokouhmand, F. Jam, and M.R. Salimpour, The effect of porous insert position on the enhanced heat transfer in partially filled channels, Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer 38 (2011), no. 8, 1162–1167.
[13] A.H.R. Suhad, Mixed convection heat transfer in saturated porous media inside a circular tube, Ph.D. thesis, University of Technology, 2006.
[14] M Tabatabaian, Cfd module: Turbulent flow modeling, Mercury Learning and Information, 2015.
[15] J. Tu, G.-H. Yeoh, and C. Liu, Computational fluid dynamics: A practical approach, 3 ed., Elsevier Ltd, United Kingdom, 2018.
[16] H.K. Versteeg and W. Malalasekera, An introduction to computational fluid dynamics, 2 ed., Pearson Education Limited, 2007.
[17] Y. Yi, C. Ma, C. Ji, and W. He, Analytical and numerical study on thermally developing forced convective flow in a channel filled with a highly porous medium under local thermal non-equilibrium, Transport Porous Media 136 (2021), no. 2, 541–567.
Volume 14, Issue 4
April 2023
Pages 247-260
  • Receive Date: 23 October 2022
  • Revise Date: 27 December 2022
  • Accept Date: 16 February 2023